• Soraia V. Matarazzo Pesquisador Científico, Dr., Centro APTA Bovinos de Leite – Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa-SP
  • Iran J. O. Silva Engenheiro Agrícola, Prof. Dr., Departamento de Engenharia Rural, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP
  • Maurício Perissinoto Engenheiro Agrônomo, MSc, Departamento de Engenharia Rural, ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, SP
  • Sérgio A. Fernandes Zootecnista, Prof. Adjunto, Departamento de Tecnologia e Rural e Animal, UESB, Itapetinga, BA
  • Daniella J. Moura Engenheira Agrônoma, Profa. Drª., Departamento de Construções Rurais, FEAGRI/UNICAMP, Campinas, SP.
  • Irineu Arcaro Júnior Doutor em Engenharia Agrícola, Instituto de Zootecnia, Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Capta Bovinos Leiteiros, Nova Odessa-SP
  • Juliana R. P. Arcaro Doutora em Engenharia Agrícola, Instituto de Zootecnia, Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegócios, Capta Bovinos Leiteiros, Nova Odessa-SP




Evaporative cooling, resting area, behaviour, dairy cows


This research aimed to use electronic monitoring for evaluating behavior patterns oflactating cows in a cooling freestall. Four video cameras were strategically installed ineach treatment for capturing in real time images of animal displacements and activities,as intake, rumination and resting. The trial was carried out during 28 consecutive daysof November 2003, in which images were daily recorded from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. during 7days. Fifteen multiparous lactating cows producing 20 kg of milk per day were used.The tested treatments were: non-fan (F0), fan (F) and fan plus misting (FM) in directionto animal bedding. Dry bulb temperature (DBT) and air relative humidity (RH) inside andoutside of facility were measured every 15 minutes during 24 hours. The RH was higherin non-fan (61.8%) and fan plus misting (61.8%) treatments than in fan (60.3%) treatment.Also, the temperature and humidity index was higher in fan (75.0) treatment than in non-fan (74.5) and fan plus misting (74.3) treatments. In the treatment with fan, animalsspent more time in the feeding area (108.3 min) than those of non-fan (60.7 min) andfan plus misting (72.5 min) treatments. Fan treatment cows spent more time (19.3 min)in waterers in relation to non-fan (8.3 min). Different patterns were observed in thecow’s preference relative to resting area. The resting areas include the bedding adjacentto feeding area and bedding adjacent to waterers. Cows of non-fan (189.0 min) and fan(167.3 min) spent more time lying in the bedding adjacent to feeding area. However, thecows of treatment fan plus misting (164.0 min of total) spent more time lying in thebedding adjacent to waterers in relation fan (26.7 min). The cows of fan plus mistingtreatment also spent more time (35.0 min) standing in passage area (drinkers) than ofnon-fan and fan (10.0 min). In the current experiment, the results indicate difference infreestall occupancy. The cow’s preference was always related to the availability of coolingsystem.


Download data is not yet available.


BACCARI JR., F. Manejo ambiental davaca leiteira em climas quentes. Londrina:UEL, 2001. 142p

BOWLER, P. J. The environmentalsciences. New York: W.W Norton andCompany, 1993. 315p.CALEGARI, F.; CALAMARI, L.; FARZZI, E.Effects of ventilation and misting on behaviorof dairy cattle in the hot season in south Italy.In: INTERNATIONAL DAIRY HOUSINGCONFERENCE, 5. Texas, 2003.Proceedings. Texas: American Society ofAgricultural Engineers, 2003. p. 303-311.

CAMPOS A. T. A importância da água parao gado de leite. Embrapa Gado de Leite.Disponível em: <http://www.sbz.org.br>.Acesso em 20 de mar. de 2003.

CURTIS, S. E. Environment managementin animal agriculture. Illinois: AnimalEnvironment Services, 1981. 430 p.

FURLAN, R.A. Avaliação da nebulização eabertura de cortinas na redução datemperatura do ar emambiente protegido.Piracicaba, 2001. 146 p. Tese (Doutorado)- Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz deQueiroz”, Universidade de São Paulo.

GAWORSKI, M. A.; TUCKER, C. B.;WEARY, D. M. Effects of stall design on dairycattle behaviour. (Compact disc). In:INTERNATIONAL DAIRY HOUSINGCONFERENCE, 5., Fort Worth, 2003.Proceedings.Fort Worth: American Societyof Agricultural Engineers, 2003.

GIBBONS, JEAN D. Nonparametricmethods for quantitativea analysis. NewYork: Holt, 1976. 254p.KROHN ,C.C.; MUNKSGAARD, L.Behaviour of cows kept in extensive (loosehousing/pasture) or intensive (tiestall)environment. Applied Animal BehaviourScience, v.37, p1-6, 1993.

MATARAZZO, S. V.; PERISSINOTTO, M.;SILVA, I. J. O. ; MOURA, D. J.FERNANDES,S.A.A. Thermal conditioned inresting area of freestall facilities and itsconsequences on productive andphysiological responses in dairy cows. Paper054020. American Society of AgriculturalEngineers, 2005.

NOETHER, G. E. Introduction to statistics:the nonparametric way. New York: Springer-Verlag, 1991.OVERTON, M. W.; SISCHO, W.M.;TEMPLE, G. D. Using time-lapse videophotography to assess dairy cattle lyingbehavior in freestall barn. Journal of DairyScience, Savoy, IL.v.85, p.2407-2413, 2002.

PIRES, M. F. A.; VILELA, D.; VERNEQUE, R.S.; TEODORO, R. L Reflexos do estressetérmico no comportamento das vacas emlactação. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DEAMBIÊNCIA NA PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE, 1.,Piracicaba, 1998. Anais... Piracicaba:FEALQ, 1998. p.68-102.

PIRES, M. F. A.; TEODORO, R. L.;CAMPOS, A. T. Efeitos do estresse térmicosobre a produção de bovinos. In:CONGRESSO NORDESTINO DEPRODUÇÃO ANIMAL, 2. Teresina, 2000.Anais... Teresina: SNPA, p.87-104, 2000.

THOM, E. C. The discomfort index.Weatherwise, Washington, v.12, p.57-59,1959.

WAGNER-STORCH, A. M.; PALMER, R. W.;KAMMEL, D. W. Factors affecting stall usefor different freestall bases. Journal of DairyScience, Savoy, IL, v.86, p.2253-2266, 2003.WEST, J. W. Effects of heat-stress onproduction in dairy cattle.Journal of DairyScience, Savoy, IL,v.86,p.2131-2144,2003.



How to Cite

MATARAZZO, S. V.; SILVA, I. J. O.; PERISSINOTO, M.; FERNANDES, S. A.; MOURA, D. J.; ARCARO JÚNIOR, I.; ARCARO, J. R. P. ELECTRONIC MONITORING ON BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS OFDAIRY COWS IN A COOLING FREESTALL. Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas, Tupã, São Paulo, Brazil, v. 1, n. 1, p. 40–49, 2007. DOI: 10.18011/bioeng2007v1n1p40-49. Disponível em: https://seer.tupa.unesp.br/index.php/BIOENG/article/view/6. Acesso em: 19 oct. 2021.