• ALEXANDRA FERREIRA DA SILVA CORDEIRO Zootecnista, estudante de pós graduação, FEAGRI-UNICAMP
  • IRENILZA DE ALENCAR NÄÄS Eng. Civil, Professora, FEAGRI-UNICAMP. CxP 6011, Campinas, SP.
  • WAGNER TOMÉ DA SILVA 4Físico, estudante de pós graduação, FEAGRI-UNICAMP




Welfare, Behavior, Metabolic Energy


In intensive pig production stressing managements such as weaning, teeth cutting and castrationmay reduce animals' welfare status and lead to decrease in productive performance. Vocalizationis a useful tool to identify stressful conditions in swine production. The objective of this researchwas to quantify the energy expenditure of vocal expression of reared pigs, in distinct stressconditions. Pig vocalizations in seven conditions were analyzed: normal, with hunger, very hungry,with pain, very painful, with fear and with much fear. The sound signal capture was done using anelectret microphone positioned 1.0 m above the animals and a laptop where the signals weredigitalized by the sound hardware and recorded at a frequency up to 44,100 Hz. For analyzing therecorded signals the Matlab® environment and the software Audacity 1.3.0 were used. Vocalizationsound intensity was higher in stressful conditions. The energy of the vocal sound was 0.107 kcal/s for pigs in normal condition, increasing considerably as the animal reaches high intensity ofstress exposure, up to 7.602 kcal/s for pigs submitted to high pain. The duration of vocalizationwas also higher in stressful conditions, vocal expression related to pain and higher pain represented3.7 and 3.6 times more duration than those related to piglets in normal conditions. These resultsshowed that there is energy expenditure when the pig vocalizes and that this value increases asfunction of the stress exposure.


Download data is not yet available.


ARNONE, M.; DANTZER, R. Does frustrationinduce aggression in pigs? Applied AnimalEthology, Londres, v. 6, p.351–362, 1980.

BOISSY A.; MANTEUFFEL, G.; JENSEN,M.B.; MOE, R.O.; SPRUIJT, B.; KEELING, L.J.;WINCKLER, C.; FORKMAN, B.; DIMITROV,I.; LANGBEIN, J.; BAKKEN, M.; VEISSIER,I.; AUBERT, A. Assessment of positiveemotions in animals to improve their welfare.Physiology & Behavior, Haren, v. 92, n.3, p.375-397, 2007.

DUPJAN, S.; SCHÖN, P-C.; PUPPE, B.;TUCHSCHERER, A.; MANTEUFFEL, G.Differential vocal responses to physical andmental stressors in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa).Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Londres,v.114, p. 105–115, 2008.

EXADAKTYLOS, V.; SILVA, M.; AERTS, J.M.;TAYLOR, C.J.; BERCKMANS, D. Real-timerecognition of sick pig cough sounds.Computers and Electronics in Agriculture,Leuven, v. 63, n. 2, p. 207-214, 2008.

KASANEN, S.; ALGERS B. A note on theeffects of additional sow gruntings on sucklingbehaviour in piglets. Applied Animal BehaviourScience, Londres, v.72, n.2, p. 93-101, 2002.

LEIDIG, M.S.A.; HERTRAMPF, B. A.; FAILING,K.B.; SCHUMANN, A. C.; REINER, G. Painand discomfort in male piglets during surgicalcastration with and without local anesthesiaas determined by vocalization and defensebehaviourApplied Animal Behaviour Science, Londres,v. 116, p.174–178, 2009.

LEWIS, N. J. Frustration of goal-directedbehaviour in swine. Applied Animal BehaviourScience, Linköping, v. 64, p. 19–29, 1999.

MARCHANT, J. N.; WHITTAKERB,X.;.BROOM, D.M. Vocalisations of the adultfemale domestic pig during a standard humanapproach test and their relationships withbehavioural and heart rate measures. AppliedAnimal Behaviour Science, Linköping, v.72, n.2,p. 23-39, 2001.

MOURA, D.J.; SILVA, W.T.; NAAS, I.A.;TOLÓN, Y.B.; LIMA, K.A.O.; VALE, M.M. Realtime computer stress monitoring of piglets usingvocalization analysis. Computers andElectronics in Agriculture, Leuven, v.64, n. 1,p. 11-18, 2008.

ROMANINI, C. E. B.; NÄÄS, I. A. Determinaçãoda influência do ambiente nos níveis de ruídosem dois tipos de creche de suínos In:Congresso Interno de Iniciação Científica, 11,2003, Campinas. Anais... Campinas:UNICAMP, Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa, 2003, v.1,p.160-160.

TALLING, J. C.; LINES, J. A.; WATHES, C. M.;WARAN, N. K. The acoustic environment ofthe domestic pig. Journal of AgriculturalEngineering Research, Silsoe, v.71, p.1-12,1998.

WEARY, D. M.; APPLEBY, M. C.; FRASER, D.Responses of piglets to early separation fromthe sow. Applied Animal Behaviour Science,Londres, v.63, n.4, p.289-300, 1999.

WEARY, D. M.; FRASER, D. Calling bydomestic piglets: Reliable signals of need.Animal Behavior, Nottingham, v.50, p.1047–1055, 1995.



How to Cite

CORDEIRO, A. F. D. S., NÄÄS, I. D. A., DA SILVA, W. T., & DE MOURA, D. J. (2008). PIG (SUS SCROFA) VOCALIZATION ASSESSMENT AS AN INDICATOR OF ENERGY EXPENDITURE. Revista Brasileira De Engenharia De Biossistemas, 2(2), 143–152. https://doi.org/10.18011/bioeng2008v2n2p143-152



Regular Section