• V. Kodaira
  • D. F. Pereira São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Science and Engineering
  • N. M. Soares
  • L. G. de F. Bueno



ambience, blood parameters, welfare


Birds in heat stress condition have physiological and metabolic changes to the maintenance of homeostasis. Blood system is sensitive to these changes and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio and the blood glucose are considered important index for measurement of chronic stress in birds. The research aimed to verify if heterophil:lymphocyte ratio and blood glucose can be used to measure stress level in birds in different environmental conditions. Dry temperature bulb, relative humidity and black globe temperature were registered by thermo-hygrometers to determine black globe temperature and humidity index (BTHI) for two aviaries, an acclimated shed and a non-acclimated one. The blood samples of 15 birds of each shed were collected to determine the blood glucose and the heterophil:lymphocyte ratio. There was no significant difference for the BTHI between the sheds. There was no significant difference for blood glucose and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio with the increase of the BTHI. In this field conditions research, it was not possible to affirm that blood parameters as blood glucose and heterophil:lymphocyte ratio can be used as heat stress indicators for laying hens.


Download data is not yet available.


BORGES, S. A. Balanço eletrolítico e sua interrelação com o equilíbrio ácido-base em frangos de corte submetidos a estresse calórico. 2001. 97 f. Tese (Doutorado em Zootecnia) – Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinária, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Jaboticabal, 2001.

BORGES, S. A.; MAIORKA, A.; SILVA, A. V. F. Fisiologia do estresse calórico e a utilização de eletrólitos em frangos de corte. Ciência Rural, v. 33(5): 975-981, set./out., 2003.

BORGES, S. A.; SILVA, A. V. F.; MAIORKA, A.; HOOGE, D. M.; CUMMINGS, K. R. Physiological responses of broiler chickens to heat stress and dietary electrolyte balance (sodium plus potassium minus chloride, milliequivalents per kilogram). Poultry Science, v. 83: 1551-1558, 2004.

BUFFINGTON, C. S.; COLLIER, R. I.; CANTON, G. H. Shade management system heat stress for dairy cows in hot, humid climates. Transactions of the ASAE, v. 26(6): 1798-1802, 1981.

FURLAN, R. L.; MACARI, M. Termorregulação. In: MACARI, M.; FURLAN, R. L.; GONZALES, E. Fisiologia aviária aplicada a frangos de corte. Jaboticabal: FUNEP/UNESP, 2002. p. 209-230.

GARRIGA, C.; HUNTER, R. R.; AMAT, C.; PLANAS, J. M.; MITCHELL, M. A.; MORETÓ, M. Heat stress increases apical glucose transport in the chicken jejunum. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, v. 290: R195-R201, 2006.

GONZALES, E. et al. Performance and physiological parameters of broiler chickens subjected to fasting on the neonatal period. Poultry Science, 82: 1250-1256, 2003.

GROSS, W. B.; SIEGEL, H. S. Evaluation of heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Diseases, v. 27(4): 972-979, oct./dec., 1983.

LAGANÁ, C.; RIBEIRO, A. M., L.; GONZÁLEZ, F. H. D.; LACERDA, L. A.; KRATZ, L. R.; BARBOSA, P. R. Níveis dietéticos de proteína e gordura e parâmetros bioquímicos, hematológicos e empenamento em frangos de corte estressados pelo calor. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, v. 36(6): 1783-1790, 2007.

LIN, H.; JIAO, H. C.; BUYSE, J.; DECUYPERE, E. Strategies for preventing heat stress in poultry. World's Poultry Science Journal, v. 62: 71-85, mar. 2006.

LIN, H.; DE VOS, D.; DECUYPERE, E.; BUYSE, J. Dynamic changes in parameters of redox balance after mild heat stress in aged laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Cambridge, Part C 147: 30-35, 2007.

LUMEJI, J. T. Avian clinical biochemistry. In: KANEKO, J. J.; HARVEY, J. W.; BRUSS, M. L. Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals. Oxford: Elsevier Academic Press, 2008. p. 839-872.

MACARI, M.; LUQUETTI, B. C. Fisiologia cardiovascular. In: MACARI, M.; FURLAN, R. L.; GONZALES, E. Fisiologia aviária aplicada a frangos de corte. Jaboticabal: FUNEP/UNESP, 2002. p. 17-35.

MASHALY, M. M.; HENDRICKS, G. L.; KALAMA, M. A.; GEHAD, A. E.; ABBAS, A. O.; PATTERSON, P. H. Effect of heat stress on production parameters and immune responses of commercial laying hens. Poultry Science, v. 83: 889-894, 2004.

MUMMA, J. O.; THAXTON, J. P.; VIZZIER-THAXON, Y.; DODSON, W. L. Physiological stress in laying hens. Poultry Science, v. 85: 761-769, 2006.

MOE, R. O.; GUÉMENÉ, D.; BAKKEN, M.; LARSEN, H. J. S.; SHINI, S.; LERVIK, S.; SKJERVE, E.; MICHEL, V.; TAUSON, R. Effects of housing conditions during the rearing and laying period on adrenal reactivity, immune response and heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratios in laying hens. Animal, v. 4(10): 1709-1715, 2010.

NICOL, C. J.; CAPLEN, G.; EDGAR, J.; BROWNE, W. J. Associations between welfare indicators and environmental choice in laying hens. Animal Behaviour, v. 78: 413-424, 2009.

PRIETO, M. T.; CAMPO, J. L. Effect of heat and several additives related to stress levels on fluctuating asymmetry, heterophil:lymphocyte ratio, and tonic immobility duration in White Leghorn chicks. Poultry Science, v. 89: 2071-2077, 2010.

SANTOS, S. C. S; MEYER, R.; COSTA, M. F. D. Variety of haematological parameters of monthly blood donor dogs. Revista de Ciências Médicas e Biológicas,

v.12: 472-477, dez.2013.

SHINI, S.; KAISE, P.; SHINI, A.; BRYDEN, W. L. Differential alterations in ultrastructural morphology of chicken heterophils and lymphocytes induced by corticosterone and lipopolysaccharide. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, v. 122: 83-93, 2008.

SOLEIMANI, A. F.; ZULKIFLI, I.;OMAR, A. R.; RAHA, A. R. Physiological responses of 3 chicken breeds to acute heat stress. Poultry Science, v. 90: 1435-1440, 2011.

STAR, L.; DECUYPERE, E.; PARMENTIER, H. K.; KEMP, B. Effect of single combined climatic and hygienic stress in four layer lines: 2. Endocrine and oxidative stress responses. Poultry Science, v. 87: 1031-1038, 2008.

THAXTON, J. P. Welfare of the laying hen. Poultry Science, v. 27: 81-95, 2004.

YAHAV, S.; STRASCHNOW, A.; LUGER, D.; SHINDER, D.; TANNY, J; COHEN, S. Ventilation, sensible heat loss, broiler energy, and water balance under harsh environmental conditions. Poultry Science, v. 83: 253-258, 2004.

YAHAV, S. Alleviating heat stress in domestic fowl: different strategies. World's Poultry Science Journal, v. 65: 719-732, dec. 2009.



How to Cite

Kodaira, V., Pereira, D. F., Soares, N. M., & Bueno, L. G. de F. (2015). COULD BLOOD GLUCOSE AND HETEROPHIL:LYMPHOCYTE RATIO BE USED AS HEAT STRESS INDICATORS FOR LAYING HENS?. Revista Brasileira De Engenharia De Biossistemas, 9(2), 182–190.



Regular Section

Similar Articles

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.