Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas <table style="height: 190px;" width="800"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="141"> <h2 class="title"> </h2> <h2 class="title"> <img src="" /></h2> </td> <td width="425">The <em>Brazilian Journal of Biosystems Engineering</em> (BIOENG) publishes original articles that present theoretical, experimental, computational advances and innovations in the areas of agricultural and environmental systems, bringing applications for the sustainable development of agricultural and animal biosystem productions. BIOENG journal publishes interdisciplinary scientific articles and prioritizes issues related to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN).</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p>Authors who publish in this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p>a) Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal the right of first publication, with the work simultaneously licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License that allows the sharing of the work with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>b) Authors are authorized to assume additional contracts separately, for non-exclusive distribution of the version of the work published in this journal (eg, publish in an institutional repository or as a book chapter), with recognition of authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> (Prof. Dr. Fernando Ferrari Putti) (Prof. Dr. Fernando Ferrari Putti) Tue, 08 Mar 2022 13:37:34 +0000 OJS 60 Characterization of cotton cultivation: spatio-temporal considerations for Mato Grosso State <h1>The State of Mato Grosso produces approximately 45% of cotton in Brazil, which makes it necessary to characterize the crop in this State. The objective was to analyze cotton production in the State of Mato Grosso through official data from the IBGE's Systematic Survey of Agricultural Production (LSPA), both for micro-regions and meso-regions. Temporal graphs and maps were constructed for planted area, quantity produced and yield. Temperature and precipitation were analyzed for the crop cycle period. Northern Mato Grosso has the largest area and quantity of seed cotton production. It is also the mesoregion with the highest growth between 2005 and 2016. However, fluctuations in planted area were reported due to supply and demand issues. The Parecis micro-region is highlighted as the one with the highest production, area and productivity. In addition, climatic factors suggest that most micro-regions are ideal for cotton production. In conclusion, production and productivity in Mato Grosso State can continue to increase with a stable market and the introduction of technology.</h1> Jefferson Vieira José, Kelly Cristina da Silva Freitas, Jéfferson de Oliveira Costa, Carlos Alberto Quiloango-Chimarro, Edna Maria Bonfim-Silva, Tonny Jose de Araújo da Silva Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 29 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Dripper clogging: emphasis on the problem and how to minimize impact <h1>Irrigation is a useful tool to achieve a better productivity and quality foods, which contributes to a higher efficient use of agriculture land. Drip irrigation is characterized by higher application efficiency, providing an efficient control of the irrigation depth required. Moreover, it has advantages such as lower evaporation loss and higher crop yields when associated with fertigation. However, dripper clogging is pointed out by several authors as the main limiting factor for a rapid adoption of drip irrigation on a larger scale. Emitter clogging susceptibility depends basically on five parameters: water quality, filtration system, fertilizer quality, labyrinth architectural layout and maintenance procedures. The adoption of chemical treatments helps to control biological agents and precipitates, making it possible to minimize the risk of clogging. This paper aims to understand how drip clogging process occurs, providing scientific arguments and support on the development of a standardized test pattern, making progress in order to identify commercial emitters that are less susceptible to clogging under field conditions.</h1> Isabela Alvarenga Almeida, Diego José de Sousa Pereira, Jéfferson de Oliveira Costa, Carlos Alberto Quiloango-Chimarro, Rubens Duarte Coelho Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Salt stress and ambience in the culture of yellow passion-fruit <h1>Salt stress negatively affects the emergence and initial growth of crops. However, the use of protected environments emerges as an alternative to enhance these parameters. In this sense, the objective was to evaluate the effect of different environments and the salinity of the irrigation water on the emergence and development of yellow passion-fruit seedlings. The experiment was conducted at the University for International Integration of the Afro-Brazilian Lusophony, in the city of Redenção, Ceará. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a subdivided plot scheme, with four cultivation environments under different shading screens (black screen; white screen; red screen; all with 50% shading; and full sun), and two electrical conductivities of irrigation water: 0.3 dS m<sup>-1</sup> and 3.0 dS m<sup>-1</sup>, with five repetitions of 25 seeds. The protected environment with 50% black roofing stood out from the others providing a better percentage of emergence, seedling height, stem diameter, number of leaves and radicle length in yellow passion-fruit. The deleterious effects of salts on the rate of emergence and shoot dry matter were reduced when the 50% black shade cloth was used. Irrigation with water of higher conductivity caused reductions and retardation in the emergence of passion-fruit. Besides negatively affecting seedling height, stem diameter and shoot dry matter.</h1> Tamires da Conceição Mendes Semedo, Geocleber Gomes de Sousa, Henderson Castelo Sousa, Bubacar Baldé, Carla Ingryd Nojosa Lessa, José Thomas Machado de Sousa Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 16 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Backpressure effects on emitters flow rate in subsurface drip irrigation <p>Subsurface drip irrigation success depends on surpassing the backpressure obstacle, a phenomenon which occurs when the water application intensity exceeds the infiltration rate of soil, which reduces the emitter flow rate. Thus, this study aimed to determine the flow rate variation, in relation to surface flow, of four drip emitters when buried at two depths in a loam soil (Yolo Loam soil), and the backpressure generated by the soil on subsurface condition. The cavity radius developed around the emitters outlet was also obtained. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, in a strip-plot scheme, with three treatments: installation depth of driplines (two levels: 0.10 and 0.20 m); dripline type (four levels: D5000, JardiLine, TalDrip and and Hydro PCND) and irrigation time (three levels: 0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 h). The results showed that the flow rate variation between the surface and subsurface application on Yolo Loam soil, with inlet pressure of 145 kPa, was greater the higher was the emitter flow rate. For pressure-compensating emitters, even under backpressure influence, this was not enough to cancel the pressure-compensating device operation, of the emitters. The emitters installation depth, as well the irrigation time, did not affect the backpressure and, consequently, the flow rate variation.</p> Michael Silveira Thebaldi, Flávia Vilela Corrêa, Pâmela Rafanele França Pinto, Luiz Antonio Lima, Adriano Valentim Diotto, Fábio Ponciano De Deus Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Modeling and simulation of trifluralin herbicide movement due to its application on soils by chemigation <h1>The Trifluralin (TFN) is a pre-emergent herbicide which is widely used in agriculture. Usually, this pesticide is directly applied to the soil, where it can remain for long periods or can be transported. In this sense, knowing the dynamics of an herbicide soil transport is essential to avoid environmental contamination problems and risks to human health. Thus, this study aims to model and simulate TFN movement on soils with two different textures, a sandy loam and clay loam soil. It was considered that the herbicide was applied via chemigation trough a subsurface drip irrigation system, under a non-steady regime. Therefore, the transport parameters of TFN in these soils and physical-hydric characteristics of these were used, while the physical environment modeling were conducted using the Hydrus 2D software. The results showed that both in sandy and clayey soils, the TFN tends to be retained by the soil, close to where it was applied, not exceeding a layer greater than 2.5 mm outside the dripper radius, even in more favorable conditions such as the presence of irrigation. Finally, it could be concluded that this herbicide movement in the soil is of low potential, due to this product high solid-liquid partition coefficient (Kd), even in sandy soil, which has low cation exchange capacity (CEC).</h1> Davidson Silva Ribeiro, Flávia Vilela Corrêa, Pâmela Rafanele França Pinto, Michael Silveira Thebaldi, Fábio Ponciano De Deus, Adriano Valentim Diotto Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 16 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Energy consumption reduction of a center-pivot with the use of a variable-frequency drive <p>Pressure demand of a center-pivot can be controlled by variable frequency drives during irrigation system operations, leading to a rational use of electrical energy. However, numerous studies encountered problems due to the lack of field data to perform the simulations. The objective of this study was to simulate the reduction of the average value of the active electrical power required to drive the pumping unit of a center-pivot irrigation system by controlling the rotational speed through a frequency inverter. The simulation was conducted considering a complete rotation of the lateral line of a central pivot, installed in an area of 70-ha, in the municipality of Formiga-MG. The simulation demonstrated the possibility of reducing the active electrical power required for the pivot pump by 18%, from an average of 131 to 107 kW. For 1300 pumping hours per year, the investment's payback time would be two and four years for the highest (R$ 0.48 kWh<sup>-1</sup>) and lowest energy cost (R$ 0.32 kWh<sup>-1</sup>), respectively. Results suggest that irrigated areas by center-pivot with variations of topographic altitude require technical-economic evaluations for using frequency inverters.</p> Isabela Alvarenga Almeida, Alberto Colombo, Ana Cláudia Sátiro de Araújo, Rafael Alvarenga Almeida, Jéfferson de Oliveira Costa, Carlos Alberto Quiloango-Chimarro Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of different methods for estimation of evapotranspiration and water deficit in soil on the growth rates of conilon clonal coffee <h1>The water deficit is considered one of the main problems in coffee culture around the world. As a way to get around this problem, producers all over the world adopt the practice of irrigation. However, in the most cultivated areas, a rational irrigation management is not carried out, resulting in excessive or insufficient applications. Based on this, the present work aimed to evaluate the effect of different methods of evapotranspiration estimative and water deficit levels on the growth rates of the clonal conilon coffee. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme with the factor evapotranspiration in 2 levels (Penman-Monteith (PM) and Hargreaves &amp; Samani (HS), and the factor water deficit in 3 levels (80%, 50% and 30% of Evapotranspiration of Reference (ETo)) in a completely randomized design. From the results obtained, it was observed that the evapotranspiration estimation method and the water deficit levels had an effect on the growth rates and free assimilation rate of the clonal conilon coffee tree, with the highest growth values in plants irrigated with 80% of ETo by the HS method, and higher assimilation values in plants irrigated with 80% of ETo by the PM method.</h1> Matheus Gaspar Schwan, Gabriel Brioschi Andreão, Maria Eduarda Carolo Freitas, Pedro Henrique Steill de Oliveira, Edvaldo Fialho dos Reis Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 23 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of sensors for quality analysis of irrigation water <h1>Monitoring the quality of irrigation water can help in the maintenance of filters and irrigation systems, avoiding clogs and uniformity problems. The objective of this work was, thus, to evaluate the performance of sensor modules for monitoring irrigation water quality variables. For that, three sensors were evaluated, and their performance was rated from the adjustment of calibration equations, obtained through linear regression analysis (y<sub>i</sub> = b<sub>0</sub> + b<sub>1</sub>x<sub>i</sub> + ε<sub>i</sub>), using the ordinary least squares method (OLS) to estimate its parameters (β<sub>0</sub> and β<sub>1</sub>). The first sensor evaluated was the Ph4502c for pH measurement. Direct methodology was used, using standard pH solutions (1.79; 4.5; 6.88; 12.13; and 13.99) and an electrode type BNC probe. The second evaluated sensor was turbidity model TSW30. To evaluate the total dissolved solids (TDS) sensor, the direct method was applied, using solutions with electrical conductivity of 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 dS m<sup>-1</sup>. To investigate the assumptions of independence, homoscedasticity, and normality of the residuals of the linear regression models, the Durbin-Watson, Breusch-Pagan, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were respectively used. In the evaluation of the statistical performance, the indicators of the root-mean-square error, coefficient of determination, correlation coefficient, confidence index, and index of agreement were adopted. The ordinary least squares method did not produce the best unbiased linear estimators for the calibration equations of the pH, turbidity, and TDS sensors, due to the violation of the regression assumptions. The adjustments showed good accuracy for water quality assessment, according to high performance statistics and models classified as ‘Excellent’.</h1> Mádilo Passos, Arthur Breno Rocha Mariano, Daniela Andreska da Silva, Alan Bernard Oliveira de Sousa Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 23 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Relationships between leaf water potential and soil water potential in grasses subjected to water stress <p>For grasses and other crops in general, soil water potential has been widely studied to determine if there is a deficit or excess of water content in the soil. However, the plant water absorption process is not only modulated by soil water potential but also by the combination of meteorological, soil depth, and crop canopy factors, which could be elucidated through water relations responses. The objective of this work was to compare the water relations of grass species established in different soil depths and subjected to water stress. Santo Agostinho (<em>Stenotaphrum secundatum</em>), Esmeralda (<em>Zoysia japonica</em>), Tanzania (<em>Panicum maximum</em>) and Tifton 85 (<em>Cynodon</em> spp.) were used in this trial. The four species of grasses were tested in four different soil rooting depths: 10, 20, 30 and 40 cm. The grasses were irrigated at soil moisture field capacity level, until the time of imposing the water stress period. Soil depth had a direct influence on leaf water potential and soil water potential. Moreover, correlation coefficients are higher in deeper soil profiles. The strongest correlations between leaf water potential and soil water potential were found in the deeper soil depth treatments. Therefore, for the soil depth treatment of 40 cm, the average R² for the four species was 0.55, the highest being 0.70 in Tanzania grass. It is possible to relate leaf water potential and soil water potential independently of the grass species used or the depth of soil available to the roots, which would allow the creation of new irrigation management strategies.</p> Sergio André Tapparo, Rubens Duarte Coelho, Jéfferson Costa, Sérgio Weine Paulino Chaves, Carlos Alberto Quiloango-Chimarro, Everton dos Santos de Oliveira Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Use of images for early identification of water stress <p>The instability of climatic events intimidates the development of crops at a global level, as it can cause serious economic and social consequences in the face of increased demand for food. In this scenario, the use of images for early identification of water stress is considered a form of non-destructive identification of physical, biochemical, and plant development-related responses. Water deficit is responsible for triggering a series of responses in the plant due to the increase in the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and the accumulation of Abscisic Acid (ABA) that promotes the closing of the stomata, limiting the evaporative cooling capacity performed by the plant, given the increase in its leaf temperature. The present article investigates the relationship between the water deficit in the plant and the consequent increase in its leaf temperature.</p> Renata Fernandes Alves, Fernando Ferrari Putti Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Radial base neural network for the detection of banana maturation stages: perceptron multilayer network comparison <h1>Agriculture is one of the pillars of human existence since it allows for the obtention of food as well as other products for food production processes. In this regard, there are some crops, such as climactic fruits, that face difficulties especially regarding classification of their maturation stages at the time of harvest, which is the case of bananas, the focus of this work. Therefore, there are some techniques that use artificial neural networks to classify them, such as multilayer networks. Examples of such networks are Perceptron, widely used in several areas, and Radial Base Functional networks (RBF), whose studies are incipient and have little use in agricultural areas. Hence, the objective of the present work was to carry out a comparison between these two neural networks to verify which provides the highest accuracy. In this work it was possible to verify that radial base functional neural networks provide a faster and more efficient categorization for the stages of bananas maturation, because they do not require training and, therefore, have low computational cost, saving more energy, when compared to a Multilayer Perceptron. Therefore, it can be inferred that Radial Base Functional Artificial Neural Networks (RBF ANN) can be widely used in agriculture, enabling the improvement of different cultures and different processes, such as harvesting.</h1> Alfredo Bonini Neto, Vitória Ferreira da Silva Fávaro, Wesley Prado Leão dos Santos, Jéssica Marques de Mello, Angela Vacaro de Souza Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 15 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of thermoacoustic tiles in sheds on a reduced scale for layering chickens <p>Climate change significantly affects the production and welfare of laying hens. In this research, the thermal performance of three different roofs for sheds composed of ceramic, fiber-cement, and thermo-acoustic tiles was analyzed in order to ascertain the performance and thermal comfort levels of the different roofs, observing the thermal comfort conditions inside the environment of the buildings. sheds. The indoor environment was monitored by recording equipment such as data loggers and sensors, which collected temperature and relative humidity data from February to March 2020. The data from the indoor environment of the facilities were used to calculate the comfort indexes for chickens laying hens. With the results, it was observed that the ceramic tile had more adequate BGHI and ET performance than the others, and the thermoacoustic tile presented a lower performance for the THI compared to the others. All tiles had a similar RTL result, with a minimal difference between them, with a significant difference occurring in two periods for thermoacoustic tiles. Thus, it is demonstrated that the ceramic tile had the best thermal performance.</p> Mario Mollo Neto, Brayam Moreira Da Silva, Diogo de Lucca Sartori Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 03 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Wavelength lighting variation on egg quality and serum glucose <p>This observational study verified the effects of monochromatic lighting for three monochromatic light spectra on the production and quality of laying hen eggs and blood parameters, as probable indicators of environmental stress. <em>Lohmann</em><sup>®</sup>29-week-old birds were divided into groups of 20 animals, housed in three experimental houses with different lighting treatments (blue, green and red), and monitored for 90 days. Were analysed 4,443 eggs, and the values of the following measurements were extracted: egg weight (g), albumen height (mm), shell resistance (kgf/cm²), shell thickness (mm), Haugh unit, specific gravity (g/cm³), and egg shape. Blood samples were collected from the birds at the beginning and at the end of the study period. The levels of total plasma protein and the heterophile/lymphocyte ratio remained within the normal range. Laying hens housed under blue and red lighting had higher egg production (per hen) and showed better egg quality results. Red lighting stood out for providing significantly better shell resistance than other treatments. Glucose differed between treatments, with a drop in blood glucose levels as the environment light wavelength increased. The quality of the eggs was affected differently by the sources of monochromatic lighting. Correct lighting management promotes better health for birds and increased egg production and quality.</p> Aline Mirella Fernandes, Fernanda Paes de Oliveira, Diogo de Lucca Sartori, Silvana Gomes Gonzalez, Douglas D'Alessandro Salgado, Marcos Martinez do Vale, Danilo Florentino Pereira Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 21 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the application of water kefir grains in the decolouration of solutions containg textile dye <p>One of the main environmental problems presented by the textile industry is the generation of effluents containing synthetic dyes. Because of that, studies have been carried out in order to remove or degrade the dyes present in wastewater and thus, the adsorption process in polymeric matrices has been highlighted due to its low cost and high efficiency in bioremediation. In this context, it was verified the potential of biodegradation of the anthraquinone C. I. Reactive Blue 4 HFG textile dye (Dianativo®) by water kefir grains, as well as the application of the insoluble exopolysaccharide produced by the grains as an adsorbent of the dye, evaluating the effect of pH and initial concentration of dyes in the reduction of staining in a model system. The grains and their insoluble polysaccharide matrix were presented as capable of decolourizing dye solutions under the evaluated conditions, reducing the dye concentration in the solution by up to 92%.</p> Ingrid Lorena Pereira Xavier, Mayara Alcides, Nathália Soares Barbosa, Marcela Bagagli Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 08 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Vertical farm: prospects for achieving sustainable development goals <p>The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of the vertical farm as an alternative for the supply of food to the world population, mainly, in the countries where the scarcity of land is evident. We linked the use of the vertical farm with the objectives of sustainable developments developed by United Nations (UN) in the fight against hunger and social inequalities in the world. A search was carried out in the databases Pubmed, Web of Science and specialized sites, using the words, vertical farm, fight against hunger and food production. According to the articles found, we could conclude that the use of the vertical farm can bring great advances in improving the supply of food to the low-income population; however, there is a need for budgetary adequacy for the implementation and operation of the entire system, being that in in some cases the costs are very high. This causes a certain skepticism in its viability. The collaboration of government agencies, non-governmental organizations and private initiative with financial support for the creation of vertical farms is essential</p> Bruno Passador Lombardi, Império Lombardi Jr Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Thu, 15 Dec 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Different sources of phosphorus in coffee tree formation <p>Arabica coffee is one of the main crops in Brazil and requires balanced nutrition. Among the nutrients, phosphorus is essential in planting so that seedlings can be successful in the after transplanting, allowing a good development and growth. The use of quality seedlings and balanced fertilization is essential for this, however, Brazilian soils, due to their mineral origins, have the characteristic of adsorbing part of the applied phosphorus, making it unavailable to plants. Therefore, the objective of this work is to verify if the sources of phosphorus when applied to the soil can be more efficient in relation to the growth and initial development of the coffee tree. The study was carried out in randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications: T1 - formulation 02-10-00; T2 - formulation 00-15-00; T3 - formulation 10-49-00; T4 - formulation 00-19-00; T5 - control, where phosphorus was not applied. After 120 days, after planting, the characteristics of the seedlings were measured, verifying root length, plant height, fresh matter, dry matter and leaf area index. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and Scott-Knott test with 5% probability. It was concluded that the treatments T1 (02-10-00) and T3 (10-49-00) provided better coffee development, proving to be a valid option for the coffee grower aiming at a better performance of phosphorus (P), an element of great complexity in plant nutrition in tropical soils.</p> Guilherme Serafini Amaral, Kleso Silva Franco Junior, Giselle Prado Brigante, Marcio de Souza Dias Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 21 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Cucumber seedlings production: tray size impact on development <p>The size of the tray in seedling production has a direct influence on the area of ​​root development and availability of resources, such as water as well as nutrients, with a potential impact on the seedling final quality. The objective of this work was to analyse the impact of the tray size on the development of cucumber seedlings. As such, this study was developed in two experiments: in the first, seedlings produced in trays with 50 and 128 cells were compared, while in the second, trays with 50, 98, and 128 cells were considered. For that, polyethylene trays and commercial substrate were used. The trays were kept in a greenhouse, and evaluations were carried out at 21 days after sowing. Morphological development and SPAD index were analysed. The data were submitted to ANOVA and the means compared by the Tukey test (0.05). Linear correlation was performed between the analysed variables. The best development of cucumber seedlings was obtained by adopting trays with 50 cells. Cucumber seedlings produced in trays with a higher number of cells show reduced development, mass accumulation and lower photosynthetic activity.</p> Gustavo Soares Wenneck, Reni Saath, Roberto Rezende, Vinicius Villa e Vila , André Felipe Barion Alves Andrean , Daniele de Souza Terassi Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fuzzy modeling of the effects of the use of mineral and organic fertilizers on the productivity of second crop corn <h1>A high productivity in a culture mainly the corn it is associated with many factors, like technological application, integrated management of plagues and diseases, soil fertility, primarily for the disponibility in soil nutrients. The present study has a its objective to analyze statistically the corn productivity with a different dosage of the 5-10-10 mineral fertilizers and organic bovine composting and develop a logic-based system <em>Fuzzy</em> of the agronomic parameters. The experiment measured corn productivity in five different dosages of mineral and organic fertilizers, being developed in the field at Colégio Agrícola de Toledo (CAET), Toledo/PR, Brazil. The results showed that a specific range of fertilizer dosages (mineral and organic) can increase corn productivity in the second crop. With the <em>Fuzzy</em> model developed, it was possible to verify the importance of the use of optimization tools that can assist in the analysis of experimental data and allow performing simulations capable of inferring points that have not been determined experimentally in the field.</h1> Emmanuel Zullo Godinho, Fernando de Lima Caneppele, Helio Vagner Gasparotto, Leonardo Pereira de Almeida Luciano Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 29 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Influence of plant spatial arrangement and water supplementation on soybean productivit <p>The present study aims to evaluate the influence of plant spatial arrangement and water supplementation on soybean yield for the 2020/21 crop year, in the edaphoclimatic conditions of the central region of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). The field experiment was installed in an experimental area of ​​ the Rio Grande do Sul State University (UERGS) in the city of Cachoeira do Sul. Supplementary irrigation provided positive increases in soybean yield between 13% (row spacing of 0.75 m) and 35% (row spacing of 0.50 m). The conventional row spacing of 0.50 m can be recommended as a spatial arrangement strategy for both irrigated areas (productivity 5,196.6 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>) and rainfed areas (productivity 3,360.0 kg ha<sup>-1</sup>), optimizing costs regarding the mechanization of farming.</p> Zanandra Boff de Oliveira, Alberto Eduardo Knies, Samuel Wolffenbüttel Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Can the tractor's cabin allow the noise at the operator's station? <h1>Constant exposure to high noise levels can cause health problems for agricultural machinery operators. Machines equipped with closed cabs can attenuate noise and preserve the operator from an unhealthy condition. Some studies show that in cabin tractors it is possible to renounce the use of hearing protection, however indoor equipment and air conditioning can reach high levels of noise, which need to be further investigated. The present study aimed to evaluate the noise emitted by a cabined agricultural tractor, in different points, inside and outside cabin, in the engine rotations of 800rpm, 2180rpm and 2500rpm. In each reading, 100 noise intensity values were automatically collected, over two minutes with the aid of a digital decibel meter device. The results were compared with the levels assumed by Annex 1 of the regulatory Brazilian standard NR 15, and it was found that the cabin was able to isolate the noise emitted by the engine and its external components in 15%, however, the internal noise reached 81dB(A). The cabin can attenuate external noise and offer a healthy working environment, however, in long working hours it is recommended to use personal protective equipment such as ear protectors.</h1> Aldir Carpes Marques Filho, kléber Pereira Lanças Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Work accidents in agriculture: a study of Brazilian soybean production <p>Soybean cultivation has great economic and social impacts, meaning it offers many job opportunities. Studying the number of accidents in this field is essential for a better understanding of the quality of work related to it. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to verify if, in the field of soybean cultivation, there are correlations between productivity, product price, and the number of accidents, between the years of 1999 and 2018, in Brazil. For that, Pearson's method was applied, allowing for a bivariate analysis that can quantify a degree of strength between different variables. As a result, it was found that soybean production and price are linearly related to the number of work-related accidents in cultivation. Therefore, it is concluded that, if an increase in price or production occurs, it will lead to an increase in accidents, and the opposite will also happen.</p> Paloma Couto Vieira De George Silva, José Moisés dos Santos Alves , Irineu de Brito Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Bioprocess for mass production and feed utilization of Azolla pinnata in aquaculture ponds: a perspective of bioeconomy and eco-friendly technology for small farms <h1>Aquatic plants have a high potential to be used as eco-friendly technology in fish farming effluent treatment systems. However, there is still a reduced use of the vegetable biomass produced in these treatment systems. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop an alternative feed with the aquatic plant Azolla pinnata to take advantage of plant biomass, reusing the plant to develop a new product and promote a circular economy. <em>A. pinnata</em> was implemented in decantation pond that receives effluents from fish farming. Samples were collected weekly at four times (0, 7, 14, and 21 days). Posteriorly, <em>A. pinnata</em> was processed to obtain the meal. Azolla meal was offered along with three commercial feed (24%, 28% and 32% of the crude protein) in an experiment to evaluate the zootechnical performance of tilapia in small tanks. The results indicated that <em>A. pinnata</em> was efficient to retention of phosphorus and nitrogen after seven days. In the experiment with animals, the treatment using commercial feed with 28% of the crude protein + Azolla showed the best efficiency rates for using the diet. Thus, the use of the <em>A. pinnata</em> meal was a viable alternative in the search for sustainable products to promote a bioeconomy in the small fish farms.</h1> Tavani Rocha Camargo, Guilherme Wolff Bueno, Levi P. Machado, Maicon R. Brande, Beatriz S. Heitzman, Thiago D. Trombeta Copyright (c) 2023 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 23 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Ability of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y904 to tolerate and adapt to high concentrations of selenium <p>The alcoholic fermentation industry generates a large surplus of yeasts, which, in turn, have the ability to bioaccumulate minerals and enable their bioavailability after cell autolysis. Among these minerals, selenium (Se) stands out, which participates in the formation of antioxidant enzymes. The objectives of the work were to define the minimum and maximum concentration of Se that yeasts (<em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> – Y904) support and the concentrations that they tolerate once adapted. To this end, a test of tolerance to Se was carried out, using treatments with different concentrations of Se. The adaptive process started at the maximum concentration obtained in the tolerance test of 60 mg mL<sup>-1</sup>, with increasing addition of 6 mg mL<sup>-1</sup>, reaching up to 246 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> of Se. The macromorphological characteristics and number of colony forming units (CFU) were evaluated. It was identified that yeasts without adaptation grew on substrate containing up to 60 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> of Se and those adapted, up to 246 mg mL<sup>-1 </sup>of Se. In addition to the reduction in yeast growth speed, from the concentration of 84 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> of Se in the medium, morphological changes in colony color were observed. It is concluded that non-adapted yeasts support up to 60 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> of Se and, after the adaptive process, they support 246 mg mL<sup>-1</sup> of Se in the medium after the adaptive process, which adds value to the final product, and makes yeasts suitable for human nutrition as a supplement or even in the formulation of probiotics.</p> Layna Amorim Mota, Ana Paula Maria da Silva, Eric Alberto da Silva, Gabriela Maria Ferreira Lima Leite, Rubens Perez Calegari, Antonio Sampaio Baptista Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of GHG emissions in Brazil from 1990 to 2030 using system dynamics for simulation <div> <p>This work studied five sectors which are responsible for GHG emissions in Brazil, namely: Agriculture, Energy, Land-use Change, Industrial Processes, and Waste. In addition to emissions, the Brazilian National Energy Balance was studied to understand the relationship between the energy matrix and GHG emissions. This entire study was developed using the System Dynamics methodology and, at the end, two scenarios were proposed. In the first scenario, it is possible to observe how GHG emissions are distributed in Brazil, while in the second scenario, it is possible to observe a reduction of about 48.9% of emissions in the country, related to the reduction of Land-use Change and Forestry together with the Energy Sector.</p> </div> <div> <p class="Simples"><strong><span lang="EN-US"> </span></strong></p> </div> <div> <p class="Simples"> </p> </div> Raphael Gallegos Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Wed, 20 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Broiler production efficiency: An analysis using thermal infrared images <p>The study objective was to evaluate the efficiency of using technology focusing on the thermal comfort of broilers in two poultry houses located in the metropolitan region of Teresina, Northeast Brazil, with different technological levels. One level uses cooling control of the housing and adopts high management of good production practices (Tech 1), while the second (Tech 2) was considered to use deficient technology during production. We analyzed the birds' surface temperature and the environment using infrared surface temperature data. Data were collected at a mean distance of 1 m from the birds using an infrared camera to construct the thermograms on the targets (broilers and surroundings). Data were processed using thermograms, and Boxplot graphs were built. It was found that broilers housed on the farm with higher environmental control (Tech1) obtained a better feed conversion and had more significant weight gain and greater profitability. This indicates that the greater the investment to mitigate heat stress, the better the producer's economic performance in this activity.</p> Eldelita Franco, Irenilza de Alencar Nääs Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 04 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An experimental investigation of the mechanical variables influence on soybean biodiesel production using the response surface methodology <h1>Biodiesel is a fuel derived from renewable sources such as vegetable oils, animal fats, or residual oils. Although it is a potential source of energy, the efficiency of the production of this fuel depends on several factors, including variables associated with the stirring and mixing process of the reactions. The proper choice of these variables can avoid the formation of vortices, favor the flow direction and the homogeneity of the mixture, and, consequently, contribute to a higher yield of biodiesel. In this context, the present work investigated the effect of agitation and mixing on the production of soybean biodiesel from the analysis of parameters: impeller (blade - turbine), stirring speed (150 rpm – 300 rpm), and baffle (with-without). For this, a 2³ factorial experimental design was carried out for the methylic and ethylic routes. In the reactions, the oil: alcohol molar ratio, amount of catalyst, time, and temperature were fixed. Experimental results indicated higher yields for reactions via the methylic route (more than 93%). Through the statistical analysis, it was also verified that the presence of a baffle and the use of a turbine impeller were the variables of greater statistical significance for the methylic and ethylic routes, respectively. These results showed that the variables considered had a significant impact on the yield of the reactions, although the reaction conditions remained constant, which reinforces that only the control of stirring and mixing parameters can promote optimal yields of the reactions, reducing costs with reagents, operating time, or temperature control.</h1> Wedja Timóteo Vieira, Rafaela Gabriel; Karla Raphaela Braga de Melo; Lívia Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro, João Inácio Soletti , Sandra Helena Vieira de Carvalho Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Mon, 10 Oct 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of coffee maturation regulators <p>The maturation of coffee fruits is a concern of coffee growers, as it directly influences the efficiency of the harvest and can interfere with the quality of the product. Therefore, the use of maturation regulators that act by controlling the speed of maturation are being increasingly used. As such, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the regulators Ethrel<sup>® </sup>and Mathury<sup>TM</sup>, in 4 treatments composed by the control, application of Ethrel<sup>®</sup>, application of Mathury<sup>TM</sup>, application of the combination of Ethrel<sup>®</sup> followed by the application of Mathury<sup>TM</sup>. Thus, the maturation stage of the fruits, the type, and the final grade regarding the quality of the drink were evaluated. After that, the data of the evaluated characteristics were submitted to statistical analysis by the Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The maturation regulators used in this experiment did not interfere with the quality of the product and the classification of the coffee. However, treatments with application of Ethrel<sup>®</sup> alone or combined with Mathury<sup>TM</sup> provided anticipation and uniformity of coffee fruits.</p> Douglas da Silva Carvalho, Kleso Silva Franco Junior, Giselle Prado Brigante, Marcio de Souza Dias Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis of concrete characteristics with the incorporation of construction waste aggregates <p>In order to reuse civil construction materials, research is carried out to obtain an efficient recycled concrete, promoting sustainability. The objective of this work is to compare the compressive strengths of the concrete specimen, with conventional and recycled aggregates, as well as the influence of granulometry on the strength and physical properties of the aggregates. For this purpose, aggregates from civil construction waste were incorporated into the concrete, replacing part of the coarse aggregates. Specimens were made with the following replacement percentages: 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%, for multiple comparisons. The control group had no replacement of conventional aggregates by recycled ones (0%). The following tests were carried out: granulometric, density, water absorption, compressive strength, and slump test. Recycled concrete presents itself as a viable option in non-structural concretes, presenting greater efficiency in the compressive strength test at granulometry of 4.75 – 9.50 mm, with 15% incorporation.</p> Gustavo Monteiro Costa Sbampato Resende, Diogo Antonio Correa Gomes, Adriano Rodrigues, Alan Pereira Vilela, Tales Pereira Rodrigues Copyright (c) 2022 Revista Brasileira de Engenharia de Biossistemas Tue, 19 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000