• Y. B. TOLON FEAGRI/UNICAMP - Campinas - Sao Paulo
  • I. A. NÄÄS FEAGRI/UNICAMP - Campinas - Sao Paulo
  • M. ROJAS FEAGRI/UNICAMP - Campinas - Sao Paulo



Thermal Comfort, Productivity, Swine Production


Swine rearing is dependent of the regional and local climate, while the variation due to the yearseasons interferes in the thermal stress suffered by the animals. This research aimed to evaluatethe influence of the time of the day as well as the seasons of the year in the inside environment ofswine nursery and finishing housing under subtropical conditions. The experiment was conductedin a commercial swine farm, and data on dry bulb temperature (DBT), air relative humidity (RH),black globe thermometer (BGT), ammonia concentration and level of noise were recorded in theroom geometrical center at a height of 1.5 m above the floor in six distinct times. Results showedthat the environmental variables (DBT and BGT) were influenced by the season of the year and bythe time of the day. Ammonia concentrations obtained varied along the day, presenting the highestvalues during the afternoon. Noise levels in the nursery were not related to the season of the year;however, the time of the day influenced the noise level.


Download data is not yet available.


ABIPECS. Carne Suína Brasileira em 2007. 30 Jul 2008.ALGERS, B.; JENSEN, P. Communicationduring suckling in the domestic pig effects ofcontinuos noise. Applied Animal BehaviourScience, London, v.14, n.1, p.49-61, 1985.

BARBOSA, N. C. Poluição sonora. Goiânia:FEMAGO, 1998. 16p.BARKER, J.; CURTIS, S.; HOGSETT, O.;HUMENIK, F. Safety in swine productionssystems. Waste Quality e Waste Management.Raleigh: North Carolina Cooperative ExtensionService, 2002. 6p.

BECKER, B. A., KLIR, J. J.; MATTERI, R. L.;SPIERS, D. E.; ELLERSIEK, M.; MISFELDT, M.L. Endocrine and thermoregulatory responsesto acute thermal exposures in 6-month-old pigsreared in different neonatal environments.Journal of Thermal Biology, Durham, v. 22, n.2, p. 87-93, 1997.

BENEDI, J. M. H. El ambiente de losalojamientos Ganaderos. Ministerio deAgricultura, Pesca y Alimentación, Servicio deExtensión Agrária, Madrid: Hojas Divulgadoras,1986, n.6/86, 28p.

BUFFINGTON, D. E. COLLAZO AROCHO, A.,CANTON, G. H. PITT, D. Black globe-humidityindex (BGHI) as a comfort equation for dairycows. Transactions of the ASAE, St. Joseph,v. 24, n.3, p. 711-14, 1981.

CHANG, C. W.; CHUNG, H.; HUANG, C. F.; SU,H. J. J. Exposure assessment to airboneendotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide andcarbon dioxide in open style swine houses.Annals of Occupational Hygiene, New York,v.45, n.6,p.457-65, 2001.

COELHO, E.; TIBIRIÇÁ, A. C. G.; BAÊTA, F. C.;TINÔCO, I. F. F. Avaliação de condiçõesambientais em sistemas de confinamentointensivo para produção de leite. In:ENCONTRO NACIONAL SOBRE CONFORTONO AMBIENTE CONSTRUÍDO, 6, EncontroLatino-Americano sobre Conforto no AmbienteConstruído, 3, 2001, São Pedro. Anais... Cd-Rom.

COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DU GÉNIERURAL – CIGR. Aerial environment in animalhousing: concentrations in and emissions fromfarm buildings. Dublin: CIGR, 1994. 116p.

COSTA, O. A.; DALLA, L.; FAUCITANO, A.;COLDEBELLA, J. V.; LUDKE, J. V.; PELOSO,D.; DALLA ROZA, M. J. R.; PARANHOS DACOSTA, M. Effects of the season of the year,truck type and location on truck on skin bruisesand meat quality in pigs. Livestock Science,Foulum, v. 107, n.1, p. 29-36, 2007.

FRASER, D. The vocalization and other behaviorof growing pigs in an ''open fieldÂ'Â' test. AppliedAnimal Ethology, Vancouver, v.1, n.2, p.13–16,1974.

FIORENTIN, L.; FIALHO, E. T.; FREITAS, A. R.Prevalência de aflatoxinas em milho utilizadona formulação de rações para suínos, no estadode Santa Catarina. In: CONGRESSOBRASILEIRO DE VETERINÁRIOSESPECIALISTAS EM SUÍNOS, 2, 1985, Rio deJaneiro. Anais... Rio de Janeiro: ABRAVES,1985, p. 147-148.

GUSTAFSSON, B. The health and safety ofworkers in a confined animal system. LivestockProduction Science, Amsterdan, v.49, n.2 ,p.191-202, 1997.

HAHN, G.L.; NIENABER, J.A.; DESHAZER, J.A.Air temperature influences on swineperformance and behavior. AppliedEngineering in Agriculture, St. Joseph, v.3,n.2, p.295-302, 1987.

HANNAS, M. I. Aspectos Fisiológicos e aProdução de Suínos em Clima Quente. In: DASILVA, I. J. O. Ambiência e Qualidade naProdução Industrial de Suínos. Piracicaba:FEALQ, 1999. 247p.

HEMSWORTH, P. H., TILBROOK, A. J. Sexualbehavior of male pigs. Hormones andBehavior, New York , v. 52, n. 1, p. 39-44, 2007.

HELLICKSON, M. A.; WALKER, J. N. Ventilationof agricultural structures. St. Joseph: AmericanSociety of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE),Bulletin n.6, 1983.

HUYNH, T. T. T., A.J.A. AARNINK, M.J.W.HEETKAMP, M.W.A. VERSTEGEN, B. KEMP .Evaporative heat loss from group-housedgrowing pigs at high ambient temperatures.Journal of Thermal Biology, Durham, v. 32, n.5, p.293-299, 2007.

IVERSEN, M., TAKAI, M. Lung function studiesin farmers during work in swine confinementunits. Zentralblatt Fur Arbeitsmedizin,Arbeitsschutz Prophylaxe und Ergonomie,Postdam, v.40, n.3, p.236-242, 1980.

KILEY, M. The vocalizations of ungulates, theircausation and function. Zeitschrift furTierpsychologie, Berlin, v.31, n.2, p.171–222,1972.

KLINGHOLZ, F, MEYNHARDT, H. LautinventareDer S.Augetiere — diskret oder kontinuierlich.Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychologie, Berlin, v. 50,n.1, p. 250–264, 1979.

KRISTENSEN, K.H.; WATHES, C.M. Amônia ebem-estar das aves: uma síntese. ClippingMerial de Avicultura, v.2, n.6, p.27-32, 2001.

LEAL, P. M.; NÃÃS I. A. Ambiência animal. In:CORTEZ, L.A.B.; MAGALHÃES, P.S.G. (eds.).Introdução à engenharia agrícola. Campinas,SP: Unicamp. 1992. p.121-135.LOTT, B. El amoníaco puede causar pérdidasimportantes. Indústria Avícola, Ames, v.50, n.10,p.8-10, 2003.

MCLEAN, J.A. The environmental needs of farmanimals and their output. The Journal of theRoyal Society for the Promotion of Health,Hannah, v.37, n. 2, p.324-329, 1969.

MONGOLD, D. W.; HAZEN, T. E.; HAYS, V. W.Effect of air temperature on performance ofgrowing-finishing swine. Transactions of theASAE, St. Joseph, v. 10, n.3, p. 370-375, 1967.

MOUNT, J. The assessment of thermalenvironment in relation to pig roduction.Livestock Production Science, Ames, v.2, n.4, p.381-392, 1975.

NADER, A.; BARACHO, M. S.; NÄÄS, I. A.;SAMPAIO, C. A. P. Avaliação dos níveis deruídos e da qualidade do ar (com relação apresença de gases e fungos) em creche desuínos. In: SEMINÁRIO DE POLUENTESAÉREOS E RUÍDOS EM INSTALAÇÕES PARAPRODUÇÃO DE ANIMAIS, 1, 2002, Campinas.Anais... Campinas: UNICAMP, 2002. p. 49 – 56.

NIENABER, J.A.; HAHN, L.G.; YEN, J.T.Thermal environment effects on growing-finishing swine. Part I - Growth, feed intake andheat production. Transactions of the ASAE, St.Joseph, v.30, n.6, p.1772-5, 1987.

NORMA REGULAMENTADORA. NR-15:Atividades e Operações Insalubres. 05 Jan 2007.

OSWEILEER, G.D. MICOTOXINS. In: Leman,A.D., Straw, B.E.; Mengeling, W.L., D'Allaire, S.;Taylor (eds). Diseases of Swine. 7ed. Ames: TheIowa State University Press, 1993. Cap. 4,p.735-743p.

PANNAGAKIS, P. AXAOPOULOS, P.Comparing fogging strategies for pig rearingusing simulations to determine apparent heat-stress indices. Biosystems Engineering,Silsoe, v.99, n.1, p. 112-118, 2008.

PANDORFI, H.; SILVA, I. J. O. DA; PIEDADE,S. M. S. Conforto térmico para matrizes suínasem fase de gestação, alojadas em baiasindividuais e coletivas. Revista Brasileira deEngenharia Agrícola e Ambiental, CampinaGrande, v. 12, n. 3, 2008.

PELTONIEMI, O.A.T.; LOVE, R.J.; HEINOMEN,M.; TUOVINEM, V.; SALONIEMI, H. Seasonaland management effects on fertility of the sow:a descriptive study. Animal ReproductionScience, Columbus, v.55, p.47-61, 1999.

PHILLIPS, C.; PIGGINS, D. Farm Animals andthe Environment. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity, 1992, 430p.

ROBERTSON, J.F.; WILSON, D.; SMITH, W.J.Atrophics rhinitis: the influence of the aerialenvironment. Animal Production, Park Ridge,v.50, p.173-182, 1990.

ROMANINI, C. E.; TOLON, Y. B.; NÄÄS, I. A.;MOURA, D. J. Physiological and productiveresponses of environmental control on housedsows. ScientiaAgricola, Piracicaba, v. 65, n.4, p.335-339, 2008 .

SABINO, M.; AMAYA, D.B.R. MycotoxinResearch in Brazil. Ciência e Cultura, SãoPaulo, v.45, n.6, p. 359-371, 1993.

SAMPAIO, C. A. P.; NÄÄS, I. A.; NADER, A.Gases e ruídos em edificações para suínos -aplicação das normas NR- 15, CIGR e ACGIH.Engenharia Agrícola, Jaboticabal, v.25, n.1,p.10-18, 2005

SCHRADER L; TODT D. Vocal quality iscorrelated with levels of stress hormones indomestic pigs. Ethology, Basel, v.104, n. 3, p.859–876, 1998.

SCHMIDT, D. R.; JACOBSON, L. D.; JANNI, K.A. Continuous monitoring of ammonia hydrogensulfide and dust emissions from swine, dairy andpoultry barns. ASAE Paper number 024060,Chicago, Illinois, U.S., 2002, 14p.

SOUSA, P.; NÄÄS, I. A. Uso deacondicionamento ambiental para matrizessuínas em gestação. Brazilian Journal ofVeterinary Research and Animal Science, SãoPaulo, v. 42, n. 3, p. 216-221, 2005.

STOMBAUGH, D.P.; TEAGUE, H.S.; ROLLER,W.L. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on thepigs. Journal of Animal Science, Savoy, v.28,p.844-847, 1969.

TINÔCO, I. F. F. Resfriamento adiabático(evaporativo) na produção de frangos de corte.Viçosa: UFV, 1987. 92p. Dissertação Mestrado.TUMMARUK, P., TANTASUPARUK, W.;TECHAKUMPHU, M.; KUNAVONGKRIT, A.Age, body weight and backfat thickness at firstobserved oestrus in crossbredLandrace×Yorkshire gilts, seasonal variationsand their influence on subsequence reproductiveperformance. Animal Reproduction Science,Columbus, v.99, n. 1-2, p. 167-181, 2007.

VEIT, H.P.; TROUTT, H.F. Monitoring air qualityfor livestock respiratory health. VeterinayMedicine and Small Animal Clinician, Leeds,v.77, p.454-464, 1982.

VERSTEGEN, M. W. A.; TAMMINGA, S.;GREERS, R. The effect of gaseous pollutantson animals. In: DEWI, I.A.; AKFORD, R.F.E.;MURAI, I.F.M.; OMED, H. (eds.). Pollution inLivestock Production Systems. Amsterdam:CAB International, p.71-79. 1994.

VON BORELL, E. Neuroendocrine integrationof stress and significance of stress for theperformance of farm animals. Applied AnimalBehaviour Science, Vancouver, v.44, n. p. 219-227, 1995.

WATHES, C. M.; JONES, J. B.; KRISTENSEN,H. H.; JONES, E. K. M.; WEBSTER, A. J. F.Aversion of pigs and domestic fowl doatmospheric ammonia. Transactions of theASAE, St. Joseph, v.45, n.5, p.1605-1610, 2001.

WEARY, D. M.; APPLEBY, M. C.; FRASER, D.Responses of piglets to early separation fromthe sow. Applied Animal Behaviour Science,Vancouver, v.63, n.4, p. 289-300, 1999.



How to Cite




Regular Section